Thursday, 15 December 2011

Kiwi Tigers

Don Cobden & Wally Churches

Donald George Cobden was born in Christchurch, New Zealand, on 11 August 1914.  As a young man Cobden took a keen interest in Rugby while attending the Christchurch Boys’ High School. It was between the years 1927 to 1931 that Cobden developed into a fine Rugby player, earning himself a place in the first XI. With a passion for Rugby still burning brightly, Cobden joined Canterbury in 1935, where he played on several occasions. Cobden’s impressive pace and strength as a wing soon caught the right attention. Standing approximately 1.85m and weighing 84kg, Don Cobden was selected by the All Blacks.       
          Cobden’s first match for the All Blacks was played against South Africa’s Springboks at Athletic Park, but unfortunately his leg was injured in a heavy tackle just 25 minutes into the match and he was forced off the field. Despite this disappointing start for Cobden, the All Blacks went on to win 13 points to 7.
          Due to his injury and a difficult time with team selection, Cobden moved on but continued to play the game he loved in England.
          Whilst in England the New Zealander played for Catford Bridge Rugby Club, the Barbarians and the Royal Air Force.
          On 2 July 1938, Cobden applied to the RAF for a Short Service commission and was duly accepted. His training began on Tiger Moths in August 1938, at the Civil Flying School Perth.
          With his training completed, Cobden was awarded his wings and was posted to No. 3 Squadron the day before war was declared in September 1939. After a brief stay, Cobden was posted to No. 615 Squadron, but was then moved on 6 October, to join No. 74 “Tiger” Squadron stationed at Hornchurch. 
          By time the New Zealander arrived, the Squadron was equipped with Spitfire Mk1s, but a month after his arrival, Cobden wrote off the very first Spitfire (K9860) the Tigers had received, when he force-landed at the satellite airfield of Rochford. Apart from this early hiccup, Cobden soon adjusted to Squadron life and developed into a first-rate fighter pilot.
          The German advance through France and the Low Countries had forced troops of the British Expeditionary Force to retreat to the beaches of Dunkirk, where they waited, exposed to terrible air attacks from the Luftwaffe, for sea vessels to evacuate them to Britain. It was a desperate time that urgently demanded the presence of RAF fighters.
          On 21 May 1940, No. 74 Squadron’s rigorous training exercises would finally be put to the test.
          In the early evening, Sailor Malan led A Flight on a patrol over Dunkirk at approximately 21,000 feet. It was here that the Tigers would meet the enemy for the very first time.
          Undoubtedly apprehensive, Pilot Officer Cobden kept in steady formation as Yellow 2, with Flying Officer Tink Measures leading the section as Yellow 1 and Pilot Officer Ben Draper flying as Yellow 3. As the Squadron passed over the North Foreland and approached Dunkirk in line-astern formation, Malan caught sight of two He 111s and gave the order to attack. As Red Section made for the bomber to port, Yellow Section broke off to attack the other. Measures closed range to 300 yards and opened fire with a steady burst which caused the enemy aircraft to wobble violently before turning in a spiralled dive towards cloud. Yellow Section continued to watch the damaged aircraft while Measures sustained his attack, until they finally lost sight of the Heinkel as it fell through cloud.
          Cobden’s first combat report recorded what he witnessed on this encounter:

Report of Yellow 2 – P/O.D.G.Cobden.

I was in line astern with Yellow 1 when we attacked starboard enemy aircraft. Before we closed range enemy aircraft went into left hand turn followed by Yellow 1.
I observed Yellow 1 fire a 3-4 second burst at, approximately range 300-100 yds. Enemy aircraft then dived quickly to right into cloud followed by Yellow 1 who reappeared shortly after.
          Throughout the following days the Tigers continued to fly operations across the Channel towards Dunkirk, where they were repeatedly met with anti-aircraft fire and skirmishes with the Luftwaffe.
          On 24 May, Cobden would once again be part of the action. While flying over the East of Calais on a late morning patrol, Red Section caught sight of a Dornier Do 17 cruising at 3,000 feet. Cobden’s combat report explains what happened next:

I was Red 3 in “A” Flight, No. 74 Squadron, when a Do.17 was intercepted East of Calais at approximately 1135. I attacked after Red 1 and Red 2 had broken off and from the line astern position fired a burst of 4-5 seconds. I broke off as I considered the machine was disabled. When No. 1 was attacking I noticed fairly big flashes from the top turret amidships which seemed to indicate a large calibre gun there. E/a was last seen going down to the ground in a flat dive. Markings and camouflage were on the underside of the wings outside the engines, which gave an impression of a four engine aircraft in the distance.

Two days later Cobden, Ernie Mayne and Harbourne Stephen shared a probable Henschel Hs 126 which was attacked in the Bourbougville – Bergues region. The following day would be perhaps the most intense yet for the Tigers.
          It was Monday 27 May, when No. 74 Squadron opened the day with an offensive patrol over Calais – Dunkirk. Cobden was amongst the eleven Spitfires cutting through the morning air, as focused pilots scanned their surroundings for enemy aircraft. The New Zealander’s tall, burly frame left little room for movement in the Spitfire’s snug cockpit, but constant checks around the canopy was absolutely vital for a fighter pilot’s survival. Soon enough the search was over and four Messerschmitt 109s were sighted flying at about 12,000 – 15,000 feet to the rear of Blue Section. To counteract the attacking 109s, Blue Section turned into them while Red and Yellow sections climbed for height. As Red Section ascended, Cobden saw three 109s dive into cloud. Then suddenly the sky appeared full of enemy fighters. Acting fast, Red 1 ordered his section to break into pairs, so Pilot Officer Freeborn as Red 2 broke off with Red 4 and Cobden as Red 3 followed Red 1 into combat. Within moments gun buttons were pressed and bullets zipped through the air. Freeborn attacked one of the fighters with Red 4, giving it several accurate bursts before it broke away trailing black smoke and licking flame. Cobden followed Red 1 who attacked a 109 at close range scoring direct hits. The 109 was forced into a dive and Red 1 followed. Cobden looked up and saw two 109s flying approximately 500 feet above his position, so he attacked from astern firing three deflection bursts which appeared to hit the tail of one of the bandits. The damaged 109 went into a steep dive before spiralling into cloud. Cobden then spotted another 109 coming towards him, slightly above and to his port side, so he manoeuvred into a quick climbing turn and ended up on the enemy’s tail. Cobden thumbed the gun button and fired two short bursts before it escaped into cloud. After a stressful battle, the Tigers returned to Hornchurch, but they would soon be back across the Channel, patrolling dangerous skies. 
          It had been an intense introduction to the war for Don Cobden, but during the evacuation of Dunkirk he had proven himself to be a capable flyer and a vigilant fighter pilot. Respected in the air, the big New Zealander was also respected on the ground by the rest of the Squadron. Some of his colleagues described Cobden as a man with a good sense of humour and as someone who enjoyed a good night out.
          John Freeborn remembered Cobden as a playful character:

“He was a charming bloke and he’d do anything to upset me. He would get into my aircraft and I’d soon shout, ‘You’re not using my bloody aeroplane!’ ‘Oh yes I am’, he’d say, ‘I’ve got to fly something and yours will do’. But being 6 foot odd he would put the pedals right forward so that it was more comfortable for him and when I’d get into it, I couldn’t even reach the pedals. Don would have the greatest pleasure when he came back from a trip in saying, ‘That aeroplane of yours does fly well!’”.  

At the end of May, the exhausted Tigers were withdrawn from operations and sent to Leconfield to rest and to be re-equipped.
          The Squadron returned to active duty on 6 June, but life was seemingly less eventful than the previous month of constant patrols and dogfights with the Luftwaffe. This small respite was just the calm before the storm, for on 10 July 1940, the Battle of Britain had official been ushered in and Cobden and the Tigers were back in the thick of it.
          At 1100 hours in the region of Ramsgate, Don Cobden led Yellow Section into action. At approximately 10, 000 feet, the Squadron intercepted a formation of enemy raiders. Cobden’s combat report states the following:

I was Yellow leader patrolling with Red Leader off Deal when we saw a formation of 10 -109’s above us. We climbed to attack them from astern. The enemy aircraft split up when we attacked and I got on to the tail of one enemy aircraft who immediately turned and headed off and down. I followed and fired a number of bursts at close range. When I broke off the attack he had black smoke coming from his starboard side and white smoke was coming from his port wing root, where his radiator was. When I left him he was well out to sea going slowly down. Most of my bursts were full deflection shots.

          Later in the day Cobden was back in the air leading Yellow Section on another sortie. The following combat report makes interesting reading:

I was Yellow Leader with Blue Leader patrolling a convoy off Dover when a number of Do.17’s were sighted. We went into attack at high speed. As I was going in to attack my Nos 2 and 3 sighted enemy aircraft fighters above and broke off to attack them. I picked out a straggler from the Dorniers and attacked from astern with full deflection shots. As I broke off I noticed black smoke coming from his starboard engine. I attacked again, and as I was breaking off I was attacked by a number of 109’s who partly riddled my aircraft. I used the extra boost and broke away successfully by doing a steep climbing turn. As my radiator had been shot I had to make a forced landing on Lympe aerodrome with my undercarriage up as it was made unserviceable in the fight.

          Fortunately, Cobden was unhurt from this incident and his Spitfire (P9398) was later repaired.
On Wednesday 24 July, six Spitfires of No. 74 Squadron took off from Manston aerodrome with instructions to patrol the Channel ports. As the Spitfires began to approach Dover, three Dornier Do 215s were sighted flying at sea level, making their way for the French coast. Without hesitation the Tigers gave chase and soon caught up with their prey. Despite the persistent efforts from the Dorniers’ rear gunners, Freeborn, Cobden and Douglas Hastings got within range of about 300 yards and sprayed one of the Do 215s with a succession of short bursts. Both Freeborn and Cobden saw their own tracer bullets hitting their target before the Dorniers climbed into cloud. Due to being too close to enemy territory the Spitfires broke off from their engagement and made their way safely back to base.
          The Squadron saw out the remainder of July with torrid patrols and arduous engagements with Goering’s air force. By 11 August 1940, the first phase of the Battle of Britain had ended and a new onslaught had begun. Rather than concentrate its attacks on the Channel ports and convoys, the Luftwaffe turned its attention on coastal airfields, hell-bent on disrupting Fighter Command.
          At dawn on the 11 August, Don Cobden awoke one year older. It was his 26th birthday, but it would not be a day for celebration.
          The first patrol of the day saw twelve Spitfires led by Malan take off into the bright morning sunshine. In astute formation, the Squadron climbed for height and set course for Dover. At 20,000 feet, the Tigers engaged eighteen Bf 109s and claimed eight of them destroyed and damaged an additional four.  It was an impressive feat for the Squadron, but any elation felt would soon be eradicated.
          Just before noon, John Freeborn led the Squadron from Manston with instructions to cover a naval convoy off Clacton. Once airborne, Freeborn became utterly frustrated due to a controller positioning the Squadron over a dense cloud base at 32,000 feet. After several attempts to locate the enemy, Freeborn realised they were in the wrong position and that the enemy was below the cloud base approaching the convoy ‘Booty’. With haste the Spitfires dived through the thick cloud and emerged to find a massive formation of Bf 110s flying in sections of threes and fours. As the Squadron dived towards the 110s, Freeborn noticed an explosion out of the corner of his eye, but due to the intense speed they were travelling at he had no time to access the situation before ending up amongst the 110s. An eruption of combat ensued and aircraft began to fall from the sky. Several of the boys quickly succeeded in destroying and damaging enemy aircraft, but in return two Tigers were taken from their ranks. During this action Pilot Officer Denis Smith was killed and so was the big New Zealander, on his 26th birthday, Pilot Officer Donald Cobden.
          The details surrounding Cobden’s death are somewhat unclear, but his Spitfire (R6757) was thought to have been shot down. However, to this day, John Freeborn wonders if the explosion he saw while diving through the thick cloud base was not Cobden colliding with a 110.
          The New Zealander’s loss was felt deeply by John and the other Tigers, for Cobden became an integral member of No. 74 Squadron. Well regarded by all who had the pleasure of knowing him, Cobden’s tough, but good natured character, was certainly missed by those left at Hornchurch.
           Don Cobden’s body was later washed ashore on the Belgium coast, where he was recovered by the Germans.
           After months of intensive combat the Squadron had earned a well earned breather from the frontline and was sent north to rest and recuperate. Some of the pilots left Hornchurch begrudgingly, not really wanting to be far from the action. Such was the determined spirit of the Tigers.
          The Squadron spent a brief spell at Wittering and then moved on to Kirton- in- Lindsay, where new replacement pilots began to arrive and training commenced. One of the new recruits was a New Zealander called Wally Churches, who had previously been at No.57 OTU, Hawarden.
          Edward Walter Gilles Churches was born in Auckland on 17 July 1921. He was educated at Onehunga Primary and Auckland Grammer Schools before working for the Posts and Telegraph Department as a telegraph messenger and postman. He was a member of the Waitemata Rowing Club where he collected many trophies. Churches applied many times for a short service commission in the RNZAF, but he was under age. His eagerness to serve was later rewarded and as a young man Churches reported to the Ground Training School, Weraroa on 26 October 1939. He then moved on to No.2 FTS, Woodbourne on 16 January 1940 and was awarded his flying badge in April. The following month Wally was commissioned as an Acting Pilot Officer.
          Churches sailed for England on 7 June in the RMS Rangitata from Auckland to join the RAF’s fight against the Luftwaffe.
          After a two week spell at RAF Uxbridge, Churches joined fellow ‘Kiwi’ Bob Spurdle at Hawarden, where, after training on Masters, they converted to Spitfires and both received a posting to No.74 Squadron. Spurdle recalled their first meeting with No.74 Squadron’s CO:

“Wally and I stood before Sailor Malan and gazed at our new CO with deep respect. ‘You pilots will be trained hard in the next few weeks. Your life expectancy will be in direct ratio to your ability to learn. Spurdle, you are being put into ‘A’ Flight – your commander is Flight Lieutenant Freeborn. You, Churches, are in ‘B’ Flight with Mungo Park. This is a famous squadron and I expect you both to remember it. In the last war Major Mannock won the VC flying for 74. He shot down 73 enemy aircraft. Soon you, too, will have plenty of targets. I’m sure you’ll do well![1]’”

          Both Spurdle and Churches felt delighted to be in the ranks of such grand company, but Wally’s war was almost over before it even began. On 30 August Churches was involved in a mid-air collision with another Spitfire flown by Sergeant Bill Skinner. During the morning the two pilots were practicing a head-on attack. Churches, flying Spitfire X4027, pulled up and his propeller shaved off the tail of Skinner’s aircraft. Skinner was forced to bale out and his Spitfire, X4022, crashed and burned out. With adrenalin pumping around his system, Churches managed to force-land his aircraft, which was damaged but later repaired. Almost impossibly Churches and Skinner were both unharmed by the hair-raising incident and no hard feelings were harboured by either of the two pilots.
          Wally Churches was a very likable character, he was a quiet, unassuming individual, but very popular among the other pilots. He quickly began to fit in to Squadron life, often joining the Tigers at their local haunt ‘The Crown’ at nearby Knockholt. The pub’s landlords, Mr and Mrs Elliot, took a real shine to the pilots, and their daughter took a particular interest in Pilot Officer Churches. It seemed the New Zealander felt quite at home in the Squadron, flying an aircraft that was the stuff of boyhood dreams.
          In a letter to his sister, Wally wrote:

“I am flying the machine I always wanted to handle – the Supermarine Spitfire – and I love it. I wish you could see one. I am sure you would love them as being beautiful pieces of engineering and the fastest means of transport in the world.[2]

          During the morning of 11 September fourteen Spitfires of No.74 Squadron landed at Duxford to operate with the Big Wing for the day.
          At 1630 hours Sailor Malan led the Tigers into the air following Nos.19 and 611 squadrons. The Tigers positioned themselves at the rear of the formation with instructions to intercept bombers approaching London, leaving the other squadrons to engage fighter escort. The Squadron was flying in three fours in sections line astern when a formation of Ju 88s was sighted 20,000 feet over London. Malan ordered a head-on attack but the Squadron was rudely interrupted by enemy fighters.
          As Yellow Leader, Flight Lieutenant John Freeborn broke off with his section to draw away the fighters and in turn lost sight of the Ju 88s. When over South London Freeborn spotted a Dornier which he attacked from head-on, hitting its port engine and then, after pulling around in a tight turn, he continued to spray the bomber with a succession of bursts until it crash-landed in a field near Dungeness and burst into flames.
          Meanwhile, as Red 4, Pilot Officer Churches intercepted a Heinkel 111 over south London. He opened his attack with a 6 second burst from 150-50 yards range and watched his gunfire rip pieces off its wing-root and fuselage. Again, Churches attacked it with another accurate burst from his eight machine guns which knocked pieces off the Heinkel’s tail. He then turned his Spitfire away from the engagement, leaving the enemy with a dead engine and trailing black smoke. When Churches returned to base he claimed the bomber as a probable.
          In the evening Churches left Duxford with the Squadron and returned to their station at Coltishall. Freeborn’s Dornier was confirmed as being destroyed and an additional ten aircraft were claimed as probables during the sortie.
          Wally Churches’ next claim occurred on 14 September after his Section had scrambled to intercept a raid north of Ipswich. Leading Green Section at around 1500 hours, he sighted a lone Ju 88 flying at 8,000 feet in a northerly direction. Churches called for a line astern attack over the R/T and manoeuvred his Spitfire into position. Churches opened the proceedings from 300 yards range but the enemy aircraft dodged in and out of cloud and Churches was forced to circle. Once in position he delivering his next attack, this time firing from a closer range of 250 yards, closing to 150, but the Junkers continued to elude his efforts by hiding in cloud cover. The bomber was out of sight for some time having ducked into heavy cumulus, but Churches spotted it again through a break in the cloud and watched it jettison its bombs. Churches chased the Junkers one last time and fired another burst, but frustratingly the bomber disappeared from sight into cloud, trailing black smoke. The chase had left Green Section low on fuel, so they landed at Watersham at 1530 hours before returning to base.
          Another similar ‘hide and seek’ encounter took place ten days later, when flying as Green 2, Pilot Officer Churches intercepted a Dornier at around 1620 hours. Attacking with Green Section, Churches thumbed his gun button five times as the enemy aircraft went in and out of cloud cover. Churches circled and waited for the Dornier to emerge in a clear patch of sky and when it did he was forced to dive down and chase it just above the sea level. Heavy haze above the sea swallowed the Dornier from view and Churches had little choice but to climb back up into the sky and head for home. Back at base the New Zealander reported that he had experienced return fire from the Dornier, but that it was very erratic and out of range.
          During the evening of 29 October, Pilot Officer Churches reported:

I was No.2 in Yellow Section Dysoe Squadron, sent off to patrol Biggin Hill at 30,000 ft. at approximately 1630 hrs. 29.10.1940
     Whilst flying in line astern at 30,000 ft. and turning N.E. down-sun Dysoe leader gave the ‘Tally-ho’ and I saw a ragged formation of Me.109’s heading east at about 27,000 ft. The leaders half-rolled into the enemy aircraft and I just caught a glance of a big twin-engine machine flying alone and heading S.E. at about 10,000 ft. over Tunbridge Wells.
     I dived vertically on the twin enemy aircraft and identified it as a Heinkel 111K. When within 250 yds. I opened fire and immediately saw my burst entering the fuselage and wing roots. Passing the tail of the aircraft at nearly 350 m.p.h. and about 20 yards astern I saw pieces flying off the enemy aircraft.
     When I pulled out of the dive I blacked out completely and momentarily lost sight of the enemy. On next sighting him he was in a gentle dive several miles ahead and making straight for the south coast. I gave chase but was unable to catch him even after passing Dungeness.
     When last seen he was at 5,000 ft. and still in a gentle dive.
     Not one shot was fired at me and I firmly believe the rear gunner, at least, was disabled.
     After passing the coast I returned to Biggin Hill and landed.

The Tigers also claimed three Bf 109s as destroyed during this patrol – two shot down by John Mungo Park and a third by an American Tiger, Willie Nelson.
          By the end of October No.74 Squadron, having fought long and hard since Dunkirk and throughout the Battle of Britain, had finally helped Fighter Command to thwart the threat of Hitler’s invasion. Be that as it may, the fight against the Luftwaffe was far from over.        
          On 2 November No.74 Squadron were ordered to patrol Biggin Hill with No.92 Squadron. Malan led the squadrons up to 15,000 feet and then climbed again to 24,000 feet. A large number of Bf 109s were sighted about 4,000 feet below their patrol line over the Isle of Sheppey. Malan gave the order to attack and then dived into action.
          On this occasion Pilot Officer Churches was flying as Yellow 2. During the melee he chased a 109 that was diving in the direction of Bolougne and managed to fasten on to its tail. A short but accurate burst pierced the enemy fighter and caused white smoke to bleed into the morning air. Churches continued to close in on the fighter and at 75 yards range he pressed his gun button for a brief moment and watched large pieces fall off the 109’s wing and fuselage before it lazily half-rolled and went down vertically into the sea. Due to the strong presence of enemy aircraft above, Churches made way for base ‘at zero feet’, claiming the Bf 109 as destroyed.
          During the afternoon of 14 November, Churches flew as Blue 4with the Squadron after being detailed to patrol Maidstone at 15,000 feet. The Tigers swept the area for some time and then approached Dover where 30 plus Ju 87s were sighted flying West at 12,000 feet along the south coast. The Squadron dived on the formation but Churches broke off from the attack as he came under fire. He turned his head and found that two Messerschmitt 109s were attacking from above. He also noticed more 109s about 1,500 feet above and ahead of his position. Immediately Churches began to take evasive action to elude the two fighters as they continued to chase him. Churches endured two more attacks by the 109s before finally shaking them off. He searched the area and caught sight of another 109 flying just below some high cloud base at 16,000 feet. Churches took his Spitfire 200 yards away from the Messerschmitt and delivered a lengthy burst from his machineguns. No hits were observed but the 109 took poor evasive action which allowed Churches a prime opportunity to latch on to its tail and fire a 4 second deflection burst. The 109 flew into a hail of bullets and pieces flew off its wings. Issuing black smoke, the 109 rolled over and went into a vertical dive, before bursting into flames. Churches followed the 109 down to 10,000 feet and then broke off to evade two more fighters which were trying to latch on to his tail. Once again, Churches succeeded in escaping the 109s and then returned to base to report the action.
          On 22 February 1941, Pilot Officer Churches took off from Manston with Sergeant Neil Morrison to relieve two Spitfires escorting a convoy North of Whitstable. As Green 1 and 2, Churches and Morrison settled into position over the convoy at 17,000 feet, when Churches was warned of 15 plus enemy aircraft approaching. Churches led Morrison up to 20,000 feet and patrolled across sun. A single Bf 110 was seen flying over North Foreland, 2,000 feet below the Spitfires. Churches gave the order to attack and Morrison went into line astern. The Spitfires dived at terrific speed but so did the 110 and they lost it in a cloud bank at 1,000 feet. A second Bf 110 was soon spotted and Churches and Morrison engaged. Churches fired two short deflection bursts at the enemy machine and Morrison delivered two 4 second bursts. Pieces fell off the 110’s twin engines and white smoke poured into the air. The nose went up slightly and then it slowly rolled on to its back and crashed into the sea. Churches went down to investigate the wreckage which was reported as being 35 miles east of Margate. The two Spitfires then set course for Manston, sharing the Bf 110 as destroyed.
          Later on 18 March, Churches was also credited with shooting down a Bf 109 south west of Folkestone. This was to be his final victory over the Luftwaffe for on 19 April 1941, the gentle ‘Kiwi’ pilot officer failed to return from a patrol. Wally Churches was later presumed dead.
          Wally’s good friend and fellow comrade Bob Spurdle sorrowfully remarked:
“Wally’s death was hard to take. We’d flown together some eight months – a long, long time by a fighter pilot’s reckoning. I remembered the good times, the wild parties, the pub crawls, egging expeditions; but most of all, the shared ecstasy of watching soft dawns creeping over sleeping fields as our Spitfires circled higher and higher to greet the golden sun.[3]

           Having left their homes in New Zealand to fly in the RAF, both Cobden’s and Churches’ contribution to Britain was of great worth and the cause they fought and ultimately died for would have lasting effects for both Britain and their homeland.    
          Today Don Cobden is buried in Belgium at the Oostende New Communal Cemetery, with Denis Smith and Harold Gunn, Plot 9, Row 2, Grave 24.
          Edward Walter Gilles Churches is remembered on the Runnymede Memorial, Panel 63.

Cobden, back row, 6th from right (74 Sqn)
Wally Churches
Cobden, 4th from right (74 Sqn)

[1] Spurdle, Bob, The Blue Arena, Crecy Books Ltd, 1995, page 31.
[2] Wynn, Kenneth. G. A Clasp For ‘The Few’, Self-Published, 1981.
[3] Spurdle, Bob, The Blue Arena, Crecy Books Ltd, 1995, page 85.

Copyright Christopher Yeoman 2011

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